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On July 1, 2001, a nationwide law in Portugal took effect that decriminalized all drugs, including cocaine and heroin. Under the new legal framework, all drugs were "decriminalized," not "legalized." Thus, drug possession for personal use and drug usage itself are still legally prohibited, but violations of those prohibitions are deemed to be exclusively administrative violations and are removed completely from the criminal realm. Drug trafficking continues to be prosecuted as a criminal offense. While other states in the European Union have developed various forms of de facto decriminalization -- whereby substances perceived to be less serious (such as cannabis) rarely lead to criminal prosecution -- Portugal remains the only EU member state with a law explicitly declaring drugs to be "decriminalized." Because more than seven years have now elapsed since enactment of Portugal's decriminalization system, there are ample data enabling its effects to be assessed. Notably, decriminalization has become increasingly popular in Portugal since 2001. Except for some far-right politicians, very few domestic political factions are agitating for a repeal of the 2001 law. And while there is a widespread perception that bureaucratic changes need to be made to Portugal's decriminalization framework to make it more efficient and effective, there is no real debate about whether drugs should once again be criminalized. More significantly, none of the nightmare scenarios touted by preenactment decriminalization opponents -- from rampant increases in drug usage among the young to the transformation of Lisbon into a haven for "drug tourists" -- has occurred. The political consensus in favor of decriminalization is unsurprising in light of the relevant empirical data. Those data indicate that decriminalization has had no adverse effect on drug usage rates in Portugal, which, in numerous categories, are now among the lowest in the EU, particularly when compared with states with stringent criminalization regimes. Although postdecriminalization usage rates have remained roughly the same or even decreased slightly when compared with other EU states, drug-related pathologies -- such as sexually transmitted diseases and deaths due to drug usage -- have decreased dramatically. Drug policy experts attribute those positive trends to the enhanced ability of the Portuguese government to offer treatment programs to its citizens -- enhancements made possible, for numerous reasons, by decriminalization. This report will begin with an examination of the Portuguese decriminalization framework as set forth in law and in terms of how it functions in practice. Also examined is the political climate in Portugal both pre- and postdecriminalization with regard to drug policy, and the impetus that led that nation to adopt decriminalization. The report then assesses Portuguese drug policy in the context of the EU's approach to drugs. The varying legal frameworks, as well as the overall trend toward liberalization, are examined to enable a meaningful comparative assessment between Portuguese data and data from other EU states. The report also sets forth the data concerning drug-related trends in Portugal both pre- and postdecriminalization. The effects of decriminalization in Portugal are examined both in absolute terms and in comparisons with other states that continue to criminalize drugs, particularly within the EU. The data show that, judged by virtually every metric, the Portuguese decriminalization framework has been a resounding success. Within this success lie self-evident lessons that should guide drug policy debates around the world.
Open Society Institute;
Based on interviews, examines the outcomes of Portugal's prevention efforts and decriminalization of drug possession and use, including changes in the number of drug users and incidences of drug-related diseases. Outlines lessons learned.
Johns Hopkins University;
This research project is the result of the efforts of researchers, data compilers, and analysts over two years, to understand the history, dimensions, and influence of the nonprofit sector in Portugal.
Instituto Nacional de Estatistica (INE);
This is a report comparing the scope, composition, and revenue of the nonprofit sector in Portugal to its counterparts in other countries. The report draws on the important new source of data on nonprofit institutions (NPIs) that has resulted from the implementation of the United Nations Handbook on Nonprofit Institutions in the System of National Accounts, including particularly the recently issued results generated by Portugal's Instituto Nacional de Estatistica - INE (National Institute for Statistics) in its Nonprofit Institutions Satellite Account.
The Pew Charitable Trusts;
This report assesses the environmental and social impacts of the Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance (FIFG), running from 2000 to 2006, using a range of quantitative and qualitative information. EU allocations for FIFG totalled €3.2 billion, of which Spain received nearly half. Member State contributions brought the total allocation of FIFG funding to €4.9 billion.A key objective of structural policy in the fisheries sector was to bring the fishing capacity of the European fleet into line with available biological resources. We identify that FIFG funding has not achieved the intended net fishing capacity reduction and, in some fleet segments, has led to fleet capacity increases. This has contributed to the worsening status of some stocks and has hindered the recovery of other stocks, as well as having had associated negative impacts on marine environment.
The following report discusses the use of Information Communications Technologies (ICTs) to improve access to, quality of, and delivery of secondary education within sub-Saharan Africa. It discusses the policy environment for ICTs in sub-Saharan Africa, their successes, challenges, andlessons learned, and it concludes with a broad and detailed set of recommendations for policymakers, donors, the private sector, designers, and implementers of ICTs in education programs. The report seeks to generally answer the question of how sub-Saharan African (SSA) governments can best use technology to improve access to secondary education, improve learning, strengthen management of schools and the education system, and foster innovation.
National Geographic Pristine Seas;
In September 2015, National Geographic's Pristine Seas project, in conjunction with the Instituto Universitário-Portugal, The Waitt Institute, the University of Western Australia, and partners conducted a comprehensive assessment of the rarely surveyed Ilhas Selvagens to explore the marine environment, especially the poorly understood deep sea and open ocean areas, and quantify the biodiversity of the nearshore marine environment.
Centre for Economic European Research - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW);
The alarming rise of youth unemployment rates following the recent economic turmoil has challenged national as well as European labour market policies. With more than 5.5 million young people in the EU struggling to find jobs, there is an urgent need to develop strategies for combatting youth unemployment, in order to avoid a lost generation of European youths threatened by lasting disadvantages in terms of labour market and social position.Against this background, the Robert Bosch Stiftung has commissioned the present study from the Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) in Mannheim. Its aims are to survey the development of youth unemployment in Europe, to identify the relevant institutional and economic drivers and to discuss the necessary courses of action to achieve a better integration of young adults into the labour market. While the study covers the perspective of the EU member states as a whole, it strongly focusses on southern European countries, which are especially suffering from the current youth unemployment crisis. Its core part is comprised of three country reports which detail the situation in Italy, Spain and Portugal, and review current and potential future policy initiatives that could help in reducing youth unemployment.
Migration Policy Institute;
While European countries struggle to manage the recent influx of refugees and migrants, a quieter trend has been occurring: large numbers of talented residents leaving. Deeply familiar to low- and middle-income countries, the phenomenon of "brain drain" -- the loss of precious human capital to opportunities elsewhere -- has recently become a concern in parts of Europe, including some high-income countries still trying to find their footing after the economic shocks of 2008 and the ensuing fiscal crisis. In the fallout from the global economic crisis, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain have in some ways returned to their earlier roles as significant countries of emigration.MPI's Transatlantic Council on Migration convened its twelfth plenary meeting to discuss the implications of emigration for middle- and high-income countries. Participants examined the realities of today's complex emigration flows, which are younger and better-educated than in the past, and explored how sending and receiving governments can manage these flows and reap the potential benefits of emigration. Drawing on the conclusions of the meeting, this Council Statement by Council Convenor and MPI Europe President Demetrios G. Papademetriou outlines a series of guiding principles to help governments manage emigration effectively, which emphasize the importance of long-term structural reforms, diaspora engagement, and cooperation with destination countries on qualifications recognition. The Council statement also identifies two areas in particular where investment in proactive policies can make a substantial difference in drawing on the benefits of emigration while reducing its costs: engaging nationals abroad, and enticing them to come home by creating new opportunities for them to use their skills.
Alliance Publishing Trust;
This report outlines the results of the initial FOREMAP mapping, with details on volumes of funding, scientific fields of focus, perceived roles, etc. Drawing on discussions held within the European Forum on Philanthropy and Research Funding, the report also provides a general overview of some of the key characteristics of research foundations in Europe. Also featured are essays on the challenges of mapping foundations in general and more specifically in the field of R&D, and on understanding the current and future role that foundations can play in supporting research in Europe. The main objective of this report is to increase understanding and awareness among research stakeholders of foundations and their role in supporting research. As such the report is mainly directed at foundation executives, civil servants involved in research policy, researchers, research managers, university presidents, and anyone with a stake in European research, including those individuals and corporations considering setting up their own foundations.
European Foundation Centre (EFC);
Since the onset of the economic crisis in 2008, concerns have been raised by all interested parties on the negative impacts for people with disabilities. A study, which was commissioned by the European Consortium of Foundations on Human Rights and Disability, examines evidence at both European and national level of the effect of the economic crisis, in terms of austerity measures, on the rights and status of people with disabilities. This report presents the key findings of this study.A core team of European researchers, complemented by national experts in six EU Member States, conducted an independent survey of documentary sources and carried out interviews with funders, providers and organisations of people with disabilities. The countries included in the study were Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal, Spain and the UK.The findings are linked back to the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) and the objectives of the EU Disability Strategy. The complete study is also accessible: http://efc.issuelab.org/resource/test_study_finding
Bernard Brunhes Internation BPI Group;
Since the onset of the economic crisis in 2008, concerns have been raised by all interested parties on the negative impacts for people with disabilities. This study, which was commissioned by the European Consortium of Foundations on Human Rights and Disability, examines evidence at both European and national level of the effect of the economic crisis, in terms of austerity measures, on the rights and status of people with disabilities. A core team of European researchers, complemented by national experts in six EU Member States, conducted an independent survey of documentary sources and carried out interviews with funders, providers and organisations of people with disabilities. The countries included in the study were Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal, Spain and the UK.The findings are linked back to the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) and the objectives of the EU Disability Strategy.