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This paper sets out to provide an analysis of what is currently known about the links between climate change and violent conflict, and the policy debates currently taking place on this issue. The purpose is to guide Christian Aid's own practice, and to inform our recommendations to international institutions and donors.
Inter-American Development Bank (IDB);
Under the Haiti Outreach (HO) model, HO asks communities for proposals to drill or refurbish a well. Then, they will only do so if the community agrees to form a maintenance committee; deposit a set amount per month for operation and maintence (committees decide who forms the community and how to set user fees); hire a guard (to enforce hours of operation, set by committees); and disseminate information through public meetings. These researchers found a unique opportunity to test the effectiveness of this community-based model as compared to standard well maintenance: following the earthquake in 2010, HO was asked to repair 158 wells and then turn them over to other groups. These wells did not receive the community-based management training, and thus serve as a comparison group. Although there are some weakness to this methodology, the author notes that it is difficult to imagine better data becoming available for evaluating alternative well maintenance approaches in rural Haiti. This paper also presents a model to quantify the tradeoff between equity and sustainabilty that characterizes the choice of whether or not to charge user fees.
Save the Children;
January 12, 2010, was a day of profound tragedy for Haiti. Four years after Haiti's epic earthquake, the numbers are still hard to accept. Over 230,000 people were killed in a matter of moments and 1.5 million others were displaced. More than 70,000 homes, businesses and public buildings were destroyed. The national government was crippled; the dead included 25 percent of all civil servants. Nearly 5,000 schools were damaged or destroyed as the ground convulsed beneath the capital of Port-au-Prince and the surrounding countryside. A fragile government, poor infrastructure and insecurity exponentially compounded the earthquake's impact, and left the population vulnerable to the cholera epidemic that affected over 630,000 people from October 2010, as well as hurricanes and tropical storms that caused flooding and wreaked havoc in 2012 and 2013. An end is in sight. Over 89% of the displaced population has left the camps; the incidence of cholera has been halved since the outbreak in 2010; severe food insecurity has been brought down from 1.5 million affected people in early 2013 to 600,000 by October 2013. Such progress was made possible by the power of your support, combined with our work and the incredible efforts of the Haitian people themselves. Now is the time to capitalize on this progress to achieve real lasting change. Now is the time to impact the lives of Haiti's most vulnerable. Now is the time to move together towards a brighter future for Haiti's children. These children still have critical unmet needs and acute vulnerabilities, requiring proven life and livelihood-saving interventions.
American Red Cross;
The American Red Cross is continuing to rebuild what the earthquake destroyed in Haiti. In the quake's immediate aftermath, they worked side by side with our Red Cross partners to provide lifesaving relief supplies. Since that time, they have helped nearly 4.4 million Haitians to get back on their feet. This report describes the accomplishments and challenges of the past four years.
One year on, rape survivors continue to arrive at the office of a local women's support group almost every other day. Sexual violence was widespread in Haiti before January 2010 but this has been exacerbated by the conditions since the earthquake. AI's report highlights how the lack of security and policing in and around the camps is a major factor for the increase in attacks over the past year. AI is calling for the new government to urgently take steps to end violence against women as part of a wider plan to address the humanitarian effort. The report states that women in the camps must be fully involved in developing any such plan.
The following paper includes findings from a national survey of US charitable donors that was conducted the week after the earthquake in Haiti occurred and during intense fundraising efforts for emergency relief. This data indicates that mobile philanthropy, while not universally accepted is gaining traction with younger generations, and the text-to-gift efforts around Haiti could be the tipping point for greater adoption.
Agence Française de Développement (AFD);
The French Agency for Development (AFD) and the French Foundation both gave support in Haïti after the earthquake of 2010. This report is a common assessment of their investment. In this framework, the collaboration between stakeholders is essential, as between those who support long term development, like the French Agency for Development, and those who react to a specific crisis, like the French Foundation in the case of Haïti. This common evaluation is a first collaborative step for both institutions towards future partnerships.
After two years Haitians continue to grapple with the effects of the devastating earthquake that killed more than 200,000 people and rendered more than one million homeless. The future of Haiti hangs in the balance, with the road to reconstruction proving to be a slow and arduous one. While billions of dollars of aid have been pledged, only half of the funds have been disbursed.This briefing note reports on the status of the reconstruction effort, and the continued challenges in shelter, education, and health facing the island nation. Haiti has for decades been plagued by institutional weaknesses, political instability, and economic insecurity; the earthquake has exacerbated these.
On January 12, 2010, a 7.3 magnitude earthquake struck Haiti ten miles from the capital, Port-au- Prince. Already the poorest country in the western hemisphere with 76% of the population living on less than $2 per day, Haiti could ill afford this blow to its fragile development. Rapid deforestation, a growing population, increasing unemployment, corruption, food price crises, weak infrastructure, gender violence, a history of natural disasters and many years of political instability had all contributed to a precarious existence for most of Haiti's population.
Port au-Prince, the capital of Haiti, despite the presence of the UN Stabilisation Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH). 1 Armed groups in the poor areas -- some loyal to former President Aristide, some loyal to rival political factions, and some criminal gangs -- have battled against the Haitian National Police (HNP) and UN military, and against each other. In just one medical mission in Port-au-Prince, some 1,400 people were admitted with gunshot wounds between December 2004 and October 2005. 'We're still receiving three gunshot victims a day. And there are more who go to the general [university] hospital -- or who are killed,' said the mission's head, Ali Besnaci of MÃƒÂ©decins sans FrontiÃƒÂ¨res. 'This is like a war. There are always confrontations between the gangs and the UN peacekeeping force, MINUSTAH'. Many, if not most, of the victims have been innocent civilians. Irresponsible arms transfers still fuel atrocities in Haiti and in many other countries. Responsible arms exporters and arms-affected states must not be held back by the few states that want to impede progress. In 2006, they must begin negotiations to agree an ATT.
Agriculture in Haiti has suffered three decades of crisis and institutional neglect. Nevertheless, almost 60 percent of Haitians live in rural areas and rely on farming for their livelihoods. For that reason, agriculture must play a central role in post-earthquake reconstruction. However, the plans and programs of the Haitian government and the international community have proven insufficient to revitalize the sector and improve conditions for small-scale farmers, and have failed to recognize the important roles of women in agriculture. The Haitian government and the main actors in agriculture should continue to prioritize agricultural development, while putting greater emphasis on long-term programs to assist Haitians to get back on their feet and improve their living conditions with dignity.