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Open Society Institute;
Examines Nicaragua's HIV/AIDS epidemic in the context of socioeconomic, political, legal, and societal factors and the state of the health care system. Makes recommendations for improving policy implementation, monitoring, treatment, and legal protection.
Nicaragua is Latin America's poorest country, with some of the worst indicators for human welfare. It also has the world's highest level of per capita debt, at around US$1,300 per capita, and one of the highest ratios of debt to GDP. Even though Nicaragua consistently fails to service its debt in full, actual debt repayments are two and a half times spending in health and education combined. This diversion of resources is taking place in a situation characterised by extreme poverty.
Population Action International;
Reproductive Health Supplies in Six Countries: Themes and Entry Points in Policies, Systems and Funding, identifies the challenges faced by reproductive health programs in Bangladesh, Ghana, Mexico, Nicaragua, Tanzania, and Uganda. Funding constraints, combined with a weak commitment to prioritize the purchase of reproductive health supplies on the side of the recipient countries and a limited capacity for distribution, have created an unstable environment for supplies worldwide. The report, and its six associated case studies, calls for renewed attention to reproductive health supplies to avoid putting the health of millions of women at risk.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention;
The goal of this sustainability evaluation was to determine the sustainability of the water and sanitation interventions implemented by the American Red Cross (ARC) in Central America post-hurricane Mitch in 1998. A 3-year survey of the health improvements of the interventions was completed by CDC in February of 2000, 2001, and 2002. The survey was done in eight communities in four countries - El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. This sustainability evaluation was conducted in 2006, four years after the 3-year survey was completed in 2002, and was conducted in six of the eight communities that received ARC interventions.
Action Against Hunger;
This report addresses three of the core areas: primary healthcare, clean water and sanitation, and nutrition -- that are essential to achieving the MDGs. It highlights examples across 17 countries of how bringing different development approaches together (ie. integration) is working to help tackle poverty and disease and calls on the international community, including donor and developing country governments, to prioritize and invest in these joined-up programs. The experiences and lessons learned from the case studies described in this report show real world examples of how to make integration work and why it's so important to do so.
World Resources Institute (WRI);
This report analyzes the growing body of evidence linking community forest rights with healthier forests and lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from deforestation and forest degradation.This report makes a strong case for strengthening the rights of indigenous and local communities over their forests as a policy tool for mitigating climate change.
Innovations in Civic Participation;
This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of government policies that involve youth in community service in 19 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The research, which was performed in 2004, provides descriptive information and explores the context within which national youth service policies can emerge and thrive. While it is assumed that well-designed national youth service policies provide a framework for engaging youth in pro-social activities that benefit themselves and their communities, relatively little research is available on the subject. Findings indicate that 13 of 19 countries in the study have a national youth service policy, and that the policies vary in forms and configuration. Facilitators and obstacles of these policies are discussed. The paper concludes by providing recommendations to policy makers.